A bodily injury liability policy and property damage liability policy are designed to cover the physical injuries and property damages, respectively, of an innocent victim in a car accident. This is the case in tort states (or states that require drivers to carry a tort-liability policy). A problem can arise, however, if the driver at fault is uninsured or underinsured.

All U.S. states require drivers to prove financial capability in compensating who they may injure or whose property they may damage in automobile accidents where they are at fault. This capability to pay may be shown by carrying auto liability insurance or a state-approved bond (in states that require auto liability insurance, not carrying one can result to a jail sentence and/or a fine plus a need to fill out an SR-22 form).

This requirement, of carrying of auto liability insurance, was mandated to make sure that at fault drivers will never default in compensating who they hurt in accidents. In tort states, victims can claim compensation from an at-fault driver’s insurance provider.

Records from the Insurance Research Council, however, say that 1 in every 8 drivers continue to freely drive on U.S. roads and highways without insurance. Thus, in order to ensure financial protection to drivers who comply with the law, D.C., along with 20 other states, requires its drivers to carry Uninsured /Underinsured Motorist coverage in addition to their auto liability insurance. This list of 20 states includes: Wisconsin; West Virginia; Virginia; Vermont; South Dakota; South Carolina; Oregon; North Dakota; North Carolina; New York; New Jersey; New Hampshire; Nebraska; Missouri; Minnesota; Massachusetts; Maryland; Maine; Kansas; and, Illinois.

Uninsured motorist coverage is designed to cover all economic losses and damages suffered by victims of accidents wherein the at-fault driver does not carry auto liability insurance. This coverage will, likewise, provide a perfect financial safety net if the accident were a hit & run or if it involved a stolen vehicle.

An Underinsured motorist coverage, on the other hand, is designed to supplement any inadequacy in the policy limit of the driver at-fault (this is usually the case when the driver at-fault carries only his/her state’s required minimum liability coverage, rendering his/her policy’s amount not enough to cover the damages suffered by the victim).

Philadelphia car accident attorneys explain that, although auto accidents can have many unintentional or unavoidable agents, a substantial portion are caused by the intentional, reckless, or negligent actions of another. Insurance companies often play on their clients’ desire to quickly resolve the ordeal by offering low settlements in order to avoid paying the full amount a claim is worth. In these cases, the defense of a proficient car accident lawyer may be necessary.


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Over the last couple decades, the shipping industry has taken great strides in improving the structures of sea vessels, and subsequently their efficiency, reliability, and safety. Many aspects of design have been exponentially improved- hull design, stability and propulsion systems, and navigational equipment to name some of those most major. Especially in lieu of the constant technological advancements of our day, ship systems are more reliable than ever before. It may be puzzling then to ship owners and employers why accidents still happen. To answer this, one might look away from ship structures as the source and look instead to the people who operate them. According to Williams Kherkher, although great strides have been taken to make this industry safer for the men and women who work aboard seafaring vessels, these workers are still at a higher risk of sustaining a workplace injury than many others. About 75-96% of maritime accidents are caused by human error. Some of the most common (and often undetected) contributors to human errors are:

  • Design of technology without user in mind- large scale manufacturing of system parts aren’t always created with the various differences in potential user profile in mind. (i.e. a piece of equipment meant to be used outside made with data keys too small to operate with a gloved hand, equipment designed with less than ideal access for smaller operators)
  • Environment: The human body operates best at a slightly restricted temperature, and anything aside from this can affect performance
  • Organizational factors: Possibly the most overlooked aspect of smooth operations, crew organization and company policies have a high impact on overall performance of employees. An open and honest interactive communication culture in the workplace promotes teamwork and freedom for employees, reducing risk taking that may occur under a strict hierarchical command system.

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