A bodily injury liability policy and property damage liability policy are designed to cover the physical injuries and property damages, respectively, of an innocent victim in a car accident. This is the case in tort states (or states that require drivers to carry a tort-liability policy). A problem can arise, however, if the driver at fault is uninsured or underinsured.

All U.S. states require drivers to prove financial capability in compensating who they may injure or whose property they may damage in automobile accidents where they are at fault. This capability to pay may be shown by carrying auto liability insurance or a state-approved bond (in states that require auto liability insurance, not carrying one can result to a jail sentence and/or a fine plus a need to fill out an SR-22 form).

This requirement, of carrying of auto liability insurance, was mandated to make sure that at fault drivers will never default in compensating who they hurt in accidents. In tort states, victims can claim compensation from an at-fault driver’s insurance provider.

Records from the Insurance Research Council, however, say that 1 in every 8 drivers continue to freely drive on U.S. roads and highways without insurance. Thus, in order to ensure financial protection to drivers who comply with the law, D.C., along with 20 other states, requires its drivers to carry Uninsured /Underinsured Motorist coverage in addition to their auto liability insurance. This list of 20 states includes: Wisconsin; West Virginia; Virginia; Vermont; South Dakota; South Carolina; Oregon; North Dakota; North Carolina; New York; New Jersey; New Hampshire; Nebraska; Missouri; Minnesota; Massachusetts; Maryland; Maine; Kansas; and, Illinois.

Uninsured motorist coverage is designed to cover all economic losses and damages suffered by victims of accidents wherein the at-fault driver does not carry auto liability insurance. This coverage will, likewise, provide a perfect financial safety net if the accident were a hit & run or if it involved a stolen vehicle.

An Underinsured motorist coverage, on the other hand, is designed to supplement any inadequacy in the policy limit of the driver at-fault (this is usually the case when the driver at-fault carries only his/her state’s required minimum liability coverage, rendering his/her policy’s amount not enough to cover the damages suffered by the victim).

Philadelphia car accident attorneys explain that, although auto accidents can have many unintentional or unavoidable agents, a substantial portion are caused by the intentional, reckless, or negligent actions of another. Insurance companies often play on their clients’ desire to quickly resolve the ordeal by offering low settlements in order to avoid paying the full amount a claim is worth. In these cases, the defense of a proficient car accident lawyer may be necessary.


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If a car and a bicycle collides, it is often the bicyclist who sustains more damage. This is because he has limited protections, such as helmets, elbow pads, and kneepads, unlike the driver who is properly restrained by a seatbelt and an airbag, not to mention protected by the metal chassis of the vehicle.
It is good to know that, according to the website of Karlin, Fleisher & Falkenberg, LLC, those who have been injured in bicycle accidents may take legal action against responsible parties, such as negligent drivers. Of course, this does not mean that bicyclists can be reckless. In fact, it can be argued that they should be the ones that are extra careful on the streets because of how vulnerable they are. Below are some of the things they can do to stay safe.

Before riding

Bicycle safety is not just about riding carefully. The risk of accidents can be minimized by doing things even before you take the wheel, such as the following:

  • Always maintain your bicycle so it is in top condition and has less risk of defects
  • Always wear adequate gear, such as helmets and pads
  • Always wear clothing with easily visible colors
  • Check for defects, especially those that involve the brakes, chains, and tires
  • Avoid alcohol, drugs, and other impairments

During riding

  • Always follow traffic rules
  • Stay in the bicycle lane, and if there is none, stay at the edge of the road
  • Ride at a speed where you can react properly to unexpected events
  • Be alert of possible obstructions, such as barriers, road signs, and utility poles
  • Be alert of road defects, such as cracks and potholes
  • Be extra alert in areas that may have a lot of vulnerable pedestrians, such as school zones
  • Be extra alert in narrow areas where vehicles may go through, such as parking entrances and exits
  • Ride more slowly under dangerous weather conditions, such as rain, snow, ice, and fog

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Least Aggressive Dog Breeds

Dogs bite because of many reasons. They bite if they feel threatened or uncomfortable, and if they need to protect something like their property and young. According to the website of the Oceanside personal injury lawyers at the Law Offices of Yvonne M. Fraser, owners of dogs who have bitten may be held responsible, as they are legally required to make precautionary measures.

But to avoid all the financial burdens of hospital bills, attorney fees, and missed time at work, you can choose the least aggressive among the most common dog breeds today.

Golden Retriever
There is a reason why Golden Retrievers are such common pets among families. First, they are known to be friendly and sweet, even among children. Second, they are physically capable to keep up with an active family’s lifestyle. They can easily be maintained with light walks and exercises.

Labrador Retriever
Labrador Retrievers are known for their gentle and affectionate nature, making them the ideal pet for the typical American family. Just like Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers are loving and fun to be with, even among children, friends, and other animals.

Bulldog
For medium-sized dogs, bulldogs are some of the best choices. They are friendly and patient, despite their grumpy looks. They also need minimal exercise and grooming, making them the best pets for those who are physically limited, like children and elders.

Poodle
Poodles are known to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds, as they are very easy to train. They are also known to be very obedient and non-aggressive, suiting their eloquent look.

Beagle
Beagles are known to be gentle and happy, making them ideal dogs for those who want small to medium-sized pets. They are also known to be great around small children, because they are playful and they are not aggressive.

Pug
Pugs are some of the least aggressive dog breeds in the small category. Contrary to their sad-looking face, they are quite friendly and easy to maintain, as they do not require much exercise. For this reason, they are very popular among those who live in limited spaces such as apartments.


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In June of 2016, about 60 million U.S. residents (retired workers, aged widows, dependents, young survivors and disabled workers) collected Social Security retirement/survivors benefits, dependent’s benefits or disability benefits. Social Security, which provides essential financial support to millions of citizens in the U.S., especially the retired and disabled workers, is one of the most effective and successful federal programs in the U.S. While close to half of all beneficiaries rely on SS benefits for the majority of their income, about five percent has Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) as the source of nearly all of their income.

Since this Social Security Act was signed on August 14, 1935, millions of employees in Social Security covered jobs, who have sustained unexpected permanent disabilities that have rendered them unable to continue working, have found the much needed financial support from SSDI.

The SS Administration determines the severity of a disability based on a person’s inability to work. The type of disability that the SSA considers to be eligible for benefits payments, however, include only total disability, since under the program, it is assumed that those who sustain and suffer partial disability or temporary disability will have other sources of financial assistance, such as the Workers’ Compensation Insurance Program or their personal health insurance.

To help prospected applicants determine immediately if their disability qualifies them to receive benefits payments, the SSA has prepared an impairment listing manual, otherwise known as the “blue book,” wherein different types of physical and mental impairments are listed. Any of the impairments included in the list will automatically qualify SS insured members to receive payment of benefits from the SSDI program (SS insured members refer to those employed in SS covered jobs, have earned the required number of credits through the monthly payment of SS taxes; this tax is indicated as Federal Insurance Contributions Act or FICA in employees’ payslips).

According to an Indiana Social Security Disability attorney, qualifying disabilities for SSDI or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) include:

  • Musculoskeletal problems, like back injuries;
  • Cardiovascular conditions, like coronary artery disease or heart failure;
  • Senses and speech issues, like loss of vision and hearing;
  • Respiratory illnesses, like asthma or COPD;
  • Neurological disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy;
  • Mental disorders, like retardation, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism, or depression;
  • Immune system disorders, like HIV/AIDS, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Various syndromes, like Sjogren’s Syndrome and Marfan Syndrome;
  • Skin disorders, like dermatitis;
  • Digestive tract problems, like liver disease or IBD;
  • Kidney disease and genitourinary problems, and cancer; and,
  • Hematological disorders, like disorders of bone marrow failure and hemolytic anemias

There are illnesses, however, which are not included in SSA’s listing but still qualify under the SSDI program. Examples of these illnesses are rheumatoid arthritis and migraine headaches that are severe enough so that these make it impossible for an individual to have a full-time job. These types of medical condition, which are medically equivalent to those in SSA’s list, are called “equaling a disability listing.”


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Over the last couple decades, the shipping industry has taken great strides in improving the structures of sea vessels, and subsequently their efficiency, reliability, and safety. Many aspects of design have been exponentially improved- hull design, stability and propulsion systems, and navigational equipment to name some of those most major. Especially in lieu of the constant technological advancements of our day, ship systems are more reliable than ever before. It may be puzzling then to ship owners and employers why accidents still happen. To answer this, one might look away from ship structures as the source and look instead to the people who operate them. According to Williams Kherkher, although great strides have been taken to make this industry safer for the men and women who work aboard seafaring vessels, these workers are still at a higher risk of sustaining a workplace injury than many others. About 75-96% of maritime accidents are caused by human error. Some of the most common (and often undetected) contributors to human errors are:

  • Design of technology without user in mind- large scale manufacturing of system parts aren’t always created with the various differences in potential user profile in mind. (i.e. a piece of equipment meant to be used outside made with data keys too small to operate with a gloved hand, equipment designed with less than ideal access for smaller operators)
  • Environment: The human body operates best at a slightly restricted temperature, and anything aside from this can affect performance
  • Organizational factors: Possibly the most overlooked aspect of smooth operations, crew organization and company policies have a high impact on overall performance of employees. An open and honest interactive communication culture in the workplace promotes teamwork and freedom for employees, reducing risk taking that may occur under a strict hierarchical command system.

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